Corona (Corona) virus is a large group of viruses that are common among animals. In rare cases, what scientists call zoonotic, that is, they can be transmitted from animals to humans. coronaviruses (Cov) is a family of viruses that cause more serious illnesses from the common cold, such as the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS - CoV) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, SARS-CoV).
As a result of extensive researches, it has been revealed that SARS-CoV is infected by musk cats and MERS-CoV is transmitted from single humped camels. There are many coronaviruses (coronaviruses) that have not yet been transmitted to humans, but are detected in animals.
Subtypes of coronaviruses circulating in humans (HCoV-229E, HCoV-OC43, HCoV-NL63 and HKU1-CoV) are mostly viruses that cause colds. SARS-CoV emerged as a previously unknown virus in 2003 as the first international health emergency of the 21st century, causing hundreds of people to die. About 10 years later, MERS-CoV (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus) from the Coronavirus (coronavirus) family, which has not been previously shown in humans or animals, was first identified in humans in Saudi Arabia in September 2012; however, it was later revealed that the first cases were actually seen in a hospital in Zarqa, Jordan in April 2012. On December 31, 2019, WHO China Country Office reported pneumonia cases of unknown etiology in Wuhan, China, Hubei province. On January 7, 2020, the causative agent was identified as the new Coronavirus (coronavirus) (2019-nCoV), which has not previously been detected in humans. Later, the name of 2019-nCoV disease was accepted as COVID-19.
Coronaviruses (Coronavirus) are found in the Coronaviridae family. They are classified into four main types. These are: Alpha, Beta, Gamma and Delta Coronaviruses (coronavirus). They can be found in human, bat, pig, cat, dog, rodent and poultry. The disease spectrum caused by Coronavirus (coronavirus) in humans can range from simple colds to severe acute respiratory syndrome (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, SARS). It may cause clinical manifestations in various degrees of respiratory, enteric, hepatic, nephrotic and neurological attitudes in humans and animals. COVID-19 virus is included in the beta-coronavirus (beta-coronavirus) family, which it contains in SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV.